Page 5 - ISAKOS 2020 Newsletter Volume 2
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Open Access (OA) Model
In OA journals, submissions can come from anyone and there is typically an "Article Processing Charge" (APC) that authors must pay. Some funding bodies account for these fees in their research grants, and some (but not all) institutions have APC funding available for employees who publish unfunded research in OA journals. Otherwise, authors must pay out of pocket in order to have their article published. Distribution is typically online only. There is no "print issue" of the journal. Sometimes, a "print on demand" print version will be available, but the reader must pay separately for this service. The content is freely available to everyone rather than only to subscribers or members. One potential concern with society-based journals is that if all content is made freely available upon publication, then the society loses the member benefit of members getting access to the journal. OA journals generate revenue through the APCs that they charge to authors. Many OA journals have a system by which authors from poor or underdeveloped countries — or even all members of the Society — can apply for a waiver of the fees. Some OA journals with high readerships are able to sell advertising if they have enough traffic to attract advertisers. Several types of copyright license are typically given by Open Access journals, with some licenses being more restrictive than others. In the most liberal license offered, anyone can use, modify, distribute, and make derivatives of the material, even for commercial purposes, as long attribution is given to the original author(s) or owner. More often, a licence is offered in which the work can be shared or distributed if attributed, but not commercially.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Each of these models has advantages and disadvantages. The greatest benefit of OA is that it enables the results of scholarly research to be disseminated more rapidly and widely. More people can read the results, including those who would otherwise not be able to access that information because of financial restrictions. The better visibility and discoverability helps citations and the impact of a journal (as measured with the Impact Factor). Industry has a broad access to the most recent science, which can be built upon. OA is environmentally friendly, involves lower production costs, and has a shorter publication timeline. It is generally expected that we will need to go there at some point in time. The main disadvantage is that the authors must pay in order for their manuscript to get published.
OA publishing has begun to influence research in orthopaedics in recent years, although perhaps less decisively than it has influenced other fields. Some journals have created a second OA journal and have maintained the hybrid model for their flagship journal. Currently, JISAKOS is published according to the hybrid model. This means JISAKOS is available both in a print edition and online and we allow authors to pay a fee to make an article Open Access. We have seen a rise in OA articles. In 2019, 4 (10%) of the 42 articles that we published were OA, compared 2%-5% of the articles published in the preceding years. A recent survey among ISAKOS members revealed that the majority of our members access our journal online.
The Future
New forms of journals are moving beyond recreating paper on a screen. Video articles, editorial comments, multimedia, apps, and interactivity are all emerging as alternatives. ISAKOS can play an increasingly important role in the development of alternatives to traditional publishing. Just as digital technologies shifted music sales from albums to singles, so could emerging technologies and services unbundle journals and make it easy and profitable for researchers to offer articles and papers without the approval of an established publisher. Researchers will face additional challenges in keeping up with developments in their field as publication options multiply. JISAKOS could play an important role in content curation. Apart from being an important resource for our field, JISAKOS also should remain a member benefit. The recent members survey already positioned JISAKOS as the main asset for the Society. The journal plays an increasingly important role and attractor of new members.
Prof. Dr. C. Niek van Dijk, MD, PhD NETHERLANDS
Editor in Chief, JISAKOS

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