Page 4 - ISAKOS 2020 Newsletter Volume 2
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Some Facts and FAQs about JISAKOS
In my first JISAKOS Editor-in-Chief’s Message, I answered some frequently asked questions such as: What can JISAKOS do that the others have not already accomplished? Can JISAKOS keep me on the right track? Will my article be registered in PubMed? Is my case report worth publishing? Is my manuscript good enough? In this second message, I will address the difference between traditional publishing, online-only publishing, the hybrid model, and Open Access (OA).
Joint Disorders & Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
New Journal Models
The traditional model of academic publishing is facing progressive competition. The publishing environment is changing, and revenues are slowly but progressively eroding. Alternative measures of research impact go beyond counting citations (Impact Factor) and consider downloads, social media activity, and other indicators. Open Access journals, preprint archives, and research data collections make it increasingly easy for researchers to bypass traditional publishing. Government agencies and other funders increasingly are requiring that research and publication data resulting from grants that they supply be made publicly available. Plan S is an initiative for open-access scientific publishing that was launched in 2018. The plan requires scientists and researchers who benefit from state-funded research organizations and institutions to publish their work in open repositories or in journals that are freely available to all by 2021. During a transition period (until 2023), publishing in a hybrid journal that is covered by a transformative agreement to become a full open-access venue will remain permissible.
Traditional Publishing Model
In the traditional publishing model, anyone can submit an article and submission is free of charge. The journal is published both in a print edition and online. The online version is typically considered the "journal of record" as it is published "first." In addition, some publishers and societies have a more robust online version of the article and print a shorter version, perhaps without data detail, to save space and printing costs. If the journal is associated with a society, it is customary that members of the society get free access to the journal as a benefit of membership. Otherwise, one must be a subscriber for access or pay to view individual articles. In this model, revenue is typically acquired from selling subscriptions to academic and medical institutions as well as to non-member individuals, article pay-per-view fees, and advertising. In the past, article reprints and industry- sponsored special issues (supplements) were also a source of income, but those sources tend to be less popular now
for a variety of reasons. Some journals charge a "publication fee" per printed page (although such fees are falling out of favor as more journals opt out of print). Similarly, journals can charge a fee to publish color figures; however, the expense of publishing color figures is related to the print process, and, as more journals go digital, they are no longer charging such fees or are collecting fewer fees (e.g., some journals offer authors the option of printing a figure in black and white but using color in the online version of the article at no additional charge). Copyright is typically retained by the journal, but some journals give authors certain rights to post and distribute content. Commercially published journals often do not give authors much in terms of article copyright in this traditional model.
Some organizations only distribute the journal online (not in print); such journals are known ad "online only" publications. The reasons for moving to the online-only model are that fewer people are reading print, print is expensive, and advertising is dwindling, meaning the print edition is a greater expense burden. For international organizations, sending out print editions is often problematic because mailing systems are slow and the journals are prone to loss or damage. For a society-based journal such as JISAKOS, it is customary for members of the society to receive free online access to the journal as a member benefit.
Hybrid Model
Some journals, including JISAKOS, still maintain a traditional publishing model but allow authors to pay a fee to make an article Open Access; journals published under this model are known as "hybrid journals." However, the Plan S Coalition, which is made up of major funders such as WHO, Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, European Research Council, and many others, are now requiring recipients of research grants to publish their research only in true full Open Access journals by 2021; hybrid journals are not acceptable under Plan S.

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