There is a need for a comprehensive and detailed analysis of preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for revision ACLR. An awareness of the effect of multiple factors on the risk of revision ACLR could help clinicians to counsel patients undergoing primary ACLR about this complication. In addition, knowledge of potentially modifiable risk factors for revision ACLR might be used to target these factors and reduce the risk of this serious event.
To identify preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative factors associated with revision ACLR within 2 years of primary ACLR.
Patients who underwent primary ACLR at our institution, from January 2005 to March 2017, were identified. The primary outcome was the occurrence of revision ACLR within 2 years of primary ACLR. Patients who underwent revision ACLR at our institution or other institutions in the country were identified through their unique personal identity number in the Swedish National Knee Ligament Registry. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate preoperative (age, gender, body mass index [BMI], time from injury to surgery, pre-injury Tegner activity level), intraoperative (graft type, graft diameter, medial meniscus [MM] and lateral meniscus [LM] resection or repair, cartilage injury) and postoperative (side-to-side [STS] KT-1000 anterior laxity, limb simmetry [LSI] for quadriceps and hamstring strength and single-leg-hop test performance at 6 months) risk factors for revision ACLR.
A total of 6,510 primary ACLRs were included. The overall incidence of revision ACLR within 2 years was 2.5%. Univariate analysis showed that age < 25 years, BMI < 25, time from injury to surgery < 12 months, pre-injury Tegner activity level => 6, LM repair, STS laxity > 5 mm, quadriceps strength and single-leg-hop test LSI of => 90% increased the odds, whereas MM resection and the presence of a cartilage injury reduced the odds of reivision ACLR. Multivariate analysis revealed that revision ACLR was significantly related only to age < 25 years (OR 6.25; 95% CI, 3.57 - 11.11; P < 0.001), time from injury to surgery < 12 months (OR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.25 - 4.17; P = 0.007) and quadriceps strength LSI of => 90% (OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.16 - 2.49; P = 0.006).
Age < 25 years, time from injury to surgery < 12 months and 6-month quadriceps strength LSI of => 90% increased the odds of revision ACLR within 2 years of primary ACLR. Understanding the risk factors for revision ACLR has important implications when it comes to the appropriated counselling for primary ACLR. We have analyzed a large spectrum of potential risk factors for revision ACLR in a large cohort. Advising patients regarding the results of an ACLR should also include potential risk factors for revision surgery.